Foreign trade have been expanding gradually increase the level of opening up
Source: "Economic Daily"
Editor's note past 60 years, along with the deepening of opening up, China's foreign trade gradually expanded the scale, the total ranks third in the world. From 1978 to 2008, China's total actual use of foreign capital for 17 consecutive years ranked first in attracting foreign investment in developing countries; accumulated foreign direct investment more than 170 billion U.S. dollars, distributed in 174 countries and territories worldwide.
From the "wooden table checkpoint"
Inspection tour of Asia's largest port
Shenzhen River meandering west flow, import the South China Sea, the Lo Wu Bridge sit day and night falls on this river flowing on. In the past, the Lo Wu Bridge is a single-plank bridge the Shenzhen River to facilitate the local farmers out of farming; now stationed here in the Lo Wu Control Point, is China's largest passenger entry and exit ports, day trips out of 244,000 passengers.
August 21, 2009 morning, the Shenzhen Luohu Customs, light and spacious clean entry and exit channel, a constant stream of contacts and orderly crowd hurried footsteps. Watching all of this, Wu Wenkui Luohu Customs and Excise, told reporters here over the past years, you see is basically out of the crowd from the Hong Kong and Macao and the Mainland, the majority of people come in large bags from Hong Kong to bring back all kinds of items bought ; Now you see, not only people who have a variety of color, and from the crowd carrying parcels, great changes have taken place. "Customs officers at Lo Wu development and change can be said that with the opening up of the motherland with the development and change." He exposed a bit proud tone.
In the Shenzhen Customs, talking about changes in customs, and many people know that "wooden table checkpoint," the origin. In 1952, the Shenzhen Customs, for the first time at the Lo Wu set up a monitoring station, in order to facilitate verification and from passengers, Customs officers at Lo Wu Railway wooden table edge branch office began. Due to harsh conditions, there is no formal office, the Department has adopted a "wooden table checkpoint," began a long side of the scene at the Lo Wu Railway Station office. Shortly after the founding of new China at that time, material shortages, overseas Chinese and compatriots in Hong Kong and Macao returned home, when, flour, rice, anything with a cloth, and even some of the Pork cooked with just cross the border. Annual Spring Festival, the Lo Wu Control Point before drawing.
The reform and opening up, Shenzhen and Hong Kong are even more frequent, large numbers of overseas Chinese and compatriots in Hong Kong and Macao back to the mainland investments and to visit relatives, friends, immigration officers at Lo Wu Control Point is also rapidly increasing, for the first pull of the Shenzhen Customs clearance reform prologue. In 1978, Shenzhen Customs reformed the "Everyone sift" the old mode of operation will be self-declaration with the customs passenger combine random sampling. In 1980, the "taxable channel" and "duty-free channel" came into being at the Lo Wu Control Point. Meanwhile, the Shenzhen Customs to enable X-ray screening of luggage, bid farewell to the new Chinese customs for several decades, "hand" operation in history. In 2000, the Shenzhen Customs at the Lo Wu Control Point initiative in introducing a risk-management philosophy, the work of travel review found the risks from manual pick dispatched, manual operation to computer management of change, from having "Everyone sift each piece is to open package" approach, to the present risk management, regular monitoring, mobile inspection, technical monitoring of the "four in one" mode, so that customs clearance efficiency and regulatory effectiveness increased dramatically.
The constant deepening of opening up to promote the continuing reform of the Lo Wu Control Point. Today, the Lo Wu Control Point side of the tracks were still in office, "wooden table checkpoint" has become Asia's largest port clearance. In 2008, the Lo Wu Control Point entry-exit passengers reached 89.19 million passengers daily supervision of the Customs 244,000 passengers entering and exiting passengers.
And out of sync with the growth of personnel and goods entering and leaving a substantial increase in volume. Shenzhen to the Customs Director of Management Services Nie Qinghua logistics, told reporters Huanggang at Man Kam To Control Point saturated after the opening, the end of 1989, just switch monitoring vehicles entering and leaving each day than 1000, also includes empty; switch four years later , 1993, Customs had supervised Huanggang to reach 3.36 million vehicles, from 1994 onwards, Huanggang Customs has opened a 24-hour cargo clearance. Now, Huanggang customs control vehicles, 26000 vehicles a day, the amount of tax 060 million yuan.
In the rest of the General Administration of Customs, the reporter saw in 1950, the National Customs revenue 356 million yuan, in 2008 reached 916.1 billion yuan, an increase of 2572 times; in 1950, the National Customs control the entry and exit passengers 5.04 million passengers, 2008 reached 361.39 million passengers, an increase of 70 times.
From the "three express trains"
To "China's first Exhibition"
That foreign trade, 85-year-old Wu Jin-old to reporters Let's talk about the "three express trains," the story. Wu Jin-Shenzhen Customs an "old customs", 1949 years ago, at the time of the Kowloon Customs. He said that the last century 60's, fresh products on the mainland in order to solve the long-term stable supply of Hong Kong, the relevant departments decided to open the "three express trains" transported three times a day from the mainland to Hong Kong train fresh products. Since then, the "three express trains" to be extended for a very long time, as trade between the Mainland and Hong Kong's much-told story.
In the "three express trains" on-line at the same time, the new China's foreign trade has also embarked on a difficult path of development. Commerce Department experts told reporters that the last century, 50 years, China's foreign trade in major international markets of the former Soviet Union and Eastern European socialist countries. At that time, China's through trade and use of the former Soviet Union government loans the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries the introduction of 156 key construction projects and complete sets of equipment and technology to build a batch of iron and steel, coal, petroleum, machinery, chemical industry backbone enterprises. At that time, China's trade with the socialist countries, the proportion of the country's total foreign trade volume in 1951 to 52.9% in 1952 to the late 50s, are more than 70%, of which the former Soviet Union, the country's foreign trade volume accounts for about 50% of the total.
60 years, China to further open the channels of trade in Western countries. In 1963, China and Japan signed the first use of a deferred payment on the importation of complete sets of equipment contracts vinylon. By 1965, China's volume of trade between the Western countries the proportion of the country's total foreign trade volume from 17.9% in 1957 to 52.8%.
Jiunn-Wen Wang is the Fair Secretary-General, talked about the changes in China's foreign trade, he said without hesitation, the Canton Fair is the most vivid testimony. He said the new China's foreign trade exchange in order to open a "window", April 25, 1957 held in Guangzhou, the first session of the Canton Fair. "Exhibition venues in the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building, only two Hall of textiles and native display of goods there are about more than 1 trillion pieces of it." Yuanda Trading Co., Ltd., Managing Director of Hong Kong Li Huan recalls the first time such a scenario into the Canton Fair . Is one such term of small-scale exchange of goods exported and become the new China was founded eight years after the economic and trade exchanges with Western countries, the first a direct channel.
After ups and downs, Fair as an important stage for China's foreign trade has always occupied, "China's first exhibition" position. At the exhibition scale, the Canton Fair has moved four times, each time the relocation is an expansion of the scale. Pazhou Complex, opened in spring 2004, the exhibition area from the initial 18,000 square meters, from 19 countries and regions will negotiate merchants to the turnover of 17.54 million U.S. dollars to develop the exhibition mode to "1 Hall 3", Stand total of nearly 56000, to be buyers from more than 200 countries and regions, more than 30 billion U.S. dollars turnover.
Fair reflects the changes in the course of development of China's foreign trade. Deputy Director of the Foreign Trade Department of Commerce, Wen Zhongliang, recalled that in 1978, China's foreign trade usher in a new spring. In May 1980, the state decided in Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou and Xiamen Special Economic Zone set up, then opening up of China's coastal areas from the point to a line from the line to surface gradually, to the last century, the late 80s along the coast formed a relatively complete open areas.
In 1992, China entered a new stage of opening up. During this period, the development and opening Shanghai's Pudong New Area, to implement along the river and the border open, opening up the mainland from coastal areas to have deepened further to form an all-round opening pattern of the region.
Since 2001, China's economy began to full integration into the world economy. December 11, 2001, for many older people who remember the days of foreign trade. On this day, after more than 15 years of difficult and tortuous process of negotiations, China became a WTO member. According to the Ministry of Commerce statistics, from the reform and opening up in 1978 to 2008, China's foreign trade increased from 20.6 billion dollars to 2.56 trillion U.S. dollars, an average annual growth of more than 17%; total actual use of foreign capital more than 8700 billion U.S. dollars, ranked for 17 consecutive years the first developing countries to absorb foreign investment.
From the "three and one compensation"
To the enterprise big "going out"
One reading "Shunde 01" the words of export registration certificate, attached to the Guangzhou Customs Building Open more than a year's exhibition hall of Guangzhou Customs. This is the country's first "three and one compensation" big business into the garment factory Shunde proof.
From 1978 to date, although this has been 30 years of registration certificate, yellow, but it is still vividly tell people that reform and opening up a new era of China's absorption of foreign capital has begun. "To attract investment to build a garment factory in 'three to one make up' initiatives such as the processing trade, which was mainly in order to solve the employment problem." Participated in the preparation in 1978 Tai-chun garment factory's original capacity of the town mayor, Liang-yin qi memories.
"Three and one compensation" the large-scale garment factories into after the establishment of factories by Hong Kong businessmen from the United States, Japan, Germany to introduce the then first-class garment equipment. That year, 300 people of this small factory OEM fee income is why about 20 million U.S. dollars. "How could such a small factory to create a large profit, allowing the leadership of the town was surprised." Liang-yin said.
Liang-yin is not surprising then sighs. After the founding of New China, according to "self-reliance towards foreign aid, supplemented by" in-building policies, our country in attracting foreign investment carried out a number of attempts and practice. 50 years of the last century, China the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries to introduce capital 2.6 billion U.S. dollars, to build a metallurgy, machinery, etc. 156 key infrastructure projects; 60 years, China's use of export credits and deferred payment options, from Japan, Britain, France and other countries the introduction of more than 300 million U.S. dollars of the complete sets of equipment; 70 years, China has twice loans to three billion U.S. dollars and 7.3 billion U.S. dollars to introduce large-scale equipment.
In 1978, China's absorption of foreign capital entered a new stage. According to the Ministry of Commerce revealed that from 1978 to 1983, five years, China's total foreign capital actually used 2.69 billion U.S. dollars; as of the end of June 2009, China has cumulatively approved 670,000 foreign-funded enterprises, the cumulative actual use of foreign capital more than 9000 billion U.S. dollars . "China has become the world's 17 consecutive years in the largest foreign investment in developing countries." Sun Peng, deputy director of Foreign Investment Department of Commerce, said.
In bringing the same time, a group of Chinese enterprises to actively implement the "going global" strategy, "to make foreign investment cooperation and foreign trade, utilization of foreign investment promote each other and together constitute an open economy of our country an important part." Cooperation Division, Ministry of Commerce Director WU Xi-Lin made this assessment.
According to him, as early as in the last century 50's to 70's, our way of loans and gifts to help the third world countries build a total of 945 various types of construction projects. Since the reform and opening up, foreign investment significantly speeded up. Commerce Department data show that from 2003 to 2008, China's non-financial overseas direct investment rose to 2.85 billion U.S. dollars from 40.65 billion U.S. dollars. As of the end of 2008, accumulated foreign direct investment more than 170 billion U.S. dollars, distributed in 174 countries and territories worldwide.
China Communications Construction Group is China's first "go out" one of the enterprises. In 2008, China Communications Group, Penang, Malaysia and Hong Kong won the bid the second bridge project. The project total of 680 million U.S. dollars contract, is so far outside of Chinese enterprises in the implementation of the longest cross-sea bridge project. With the cross-group, as also from China's foreign contracted projects and opening up to the beginning of building of houses, roads and other civil works mainly simple, step by step to the transportation, construction, electric power, petrochemical, aerospace and other various industries extension of capital and technology-intensive power , metallurgy, petrochemical, rail transport and telecommunications sectors have accounted for more than half the volume of business.
With the gradual deepening of opening up, Chinese enterprises "going out" gradually increase the pace. As of the end of June 2009, foreign contracted project, a total amount of 498.8 billion U.S. dollars contract to complete the turnover of 295.2 billion U.S. dollars. Millions of dollars in the number and size of large projects rising fast. China Communications Group and general manager of overseas business, said Wang Xiaoguang exclaimed: "So that millions of dollars on the project is great, and now in our hands a lot of projects on a single contract more than 100 million U.S. dollars in 2007, our largest single construction contract amounting to 1.6 billion in the U.S. yuan. "