Opening up an unprecedented upheaval: the opening of China to embrace the world
Source: "People's Daily"
Through 60 years of the Republic of space-time tunnels, opening up is undoubtedly one of the brightest highlights.
60 years ago, facing the newly-established a new China, Europe and the United States are talking about: "A closed door of the poor and vulnerable of the footer 300 years, can keep up with the pace of the world economy?"
30 years ago, in the face just open the door to China, the international community, a question: "Let the world's 1 / 4 of rapid population out of isolation, with the world, such a precedent had it?"
History is always a way to amazing miracles.
Today, from the coast to the river border, from east to central and western regions, China has formed a comprehensive, multi-level and wide-ranging opening pattern. As a basic national policy of opening up to the vast land of unprecedented upheaval, from the closed and semi-closed economy shift towards an open economy, creating a worldwide development of a new road to go open a successful example of ... ...
Of large-scale cross-Qi
Structural transformation to a higher level
In Chongqing, many of the elderly know that "bristles King" ancient Gengyu, and his business had accounted for half of world trade in pig bristles. 60 years ago, commissioned by the central leading comrades founded the ancient Gengyu bristle company, for the new development of China's foreign trade. It was not until the late 20th century, 70, pig bristles and other agricultural and sideline native products is still China's main export commodity.
Before the founding of New China, over a hundred years, China's foreign economic relations in an unequal position. After 1949, with a highly centralized planned economic system, we have been in a closed or semi-closed under special historical conditions of economic development, foreign trade is limited to regulating the function of surplus and deficiency.
Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Party opening up to the implementation of major policy decisions, China's foreign economic relations and trade sailing. 31 years ago, the country's first "three and one compensation" Enterprise - Taiping handbag factory opened in Dongguan. It is starting from here, China's foreign trade step by one step to achieve a "large quantities" of the stunning leap forward to become the world's third largest trading country, the second largest exporter.
In 2008, China's imports and exports reached 2.56 trillion U.S. dollars, more than 1950-fold increase in 2267 is the year 1949-1978 the sum of 15 times, accounting for the proportion of total world trade in 1950 to 0.9 percent by the year 2008 rose to 8.86%. Reform and opening up, there are only a dozen professional foreign trade companies, by 2009 more than 750,000. In 1950, the former Soviet Union and Hong Kong's total trade volume of total exports 53.6%, and now, I have had increased to more than 220 trading partners, markets become increasingly diverse. U.S. Saraben Giorni column writer has done a well-known experiment: One year not to buy Chinese goods. But in the end she found: the family lives simply can not do without Chinese goods.
Shenzhen customs old retired Customs Officer, Senior Customs supervision of Wu Jin-feeling: "Now a lot of people prefer to sourcing." According to Customs statistics, China Customs clearance of each working day, an average of 10.2 billion U.S. dollars in import and export goods, 3.6 billion of tax collection ... ...
Exciting changes to the structure of export commodities, mainly primary products to achieve a shift to labor, capital and technology-intensive manufactures mainly "Chinese people no longer can sell more pig iron, casings of." Textiles, clothing, shoes, toys and other labor-intensive exports for many years first in the world in recent years, mobile phones, color TV, container, magnetic heads and other exports also rose to first in the world, accounting for export of electromechanical products reached 57.6%.
Known as "China's first exhibition," The Canton Fair has witnessed this change. Since the beginning of 1957, the Canton Fair has been held 105 sessions. In addition to the largest and most complete of goods, merchants most, Canton Fair also change foreign trade growth, China started to build a big stage for independent brands, Haier, Midea, Chint, universal, leap, Sainty ... ... a number of well-known export brands Ben Wang from the Canton Fair in the world, high-tech, high value-added products become Fair protagonist. Go from a big trading country, from the "Made in China" into "Made in China", the Republic has taken a solid pace.
Open embrace of the introduction to
Breaking the prohibited zone to promote changes
Foreign investment in China was once the "forbidden zone."
In December 1949, the Chinese delegation visited the Stalin Automobile Factory, we have a common hope: "We have to have such a car factory." It was not until 30 years later, China's annual output of just over 2000 cars sedan. Regarding the use of Western technology and management resources to develop the automotive industry, to think the unthinkable.
The former General Motors chairman Thomas Murphy recalled that in 1978, he led a delegation to China, the first time to do a joint venture with the Chinese automobile factory, and to joint ventures, compared to "marriage" is to put together the two sides wallet. The reaction of the Chinese side is: you are a capitalist, I am a Communist, I can talk to you "married" do? !
The ice was finally broken, and to cooperate in the development and growth in the competition. Saddled with Comrade Xiaoping, "blaze a new trail" in trust, China's absorption of foreign capital from the outset closely hand in hand with the opening-up process has gone through a scratch, from as little more than small and medium enterprises from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan to the overseas Chinese developed countries, multinational giants, from the individual co-operative to the diversification of investments, ranging from simple processing to the integration of industrial chain, from manufacturing to services, from the coast to a small number of pilot cities all over the country's development path. As of the end of June 2009, China had approved the establishment of 670,000 foreign-invested enterprises, the cumulative actual use of foreign capital more than 9400 billion U.S. dollars. Awarded for 17 consecutive years, the largest foreign investment in developing countries. World Top 500 invest in China have more than 480 foreign R & D centers set up in China about 1200, its technology spillover and demonstration effects of a strong increase my level of industrial development and independent innovation capability. Urban employment population, there is one person every 8 individuals working in foreign invested enterprises.
Use of foreign capital not only promoted economic growth and give people ideas and concepts, everyday life and mental outlook has brought profound changes. 30 years ago in order to buy foreign exchange certificate must be a luxury Coca-Cola, today in any Chinese supermarket shelves filled, consumers can choose up to hundreds of Chinese and foreign drinks. Nokia China Investment Co., said Colin Giles, president of the 20th century, the mid-80s, China's telephone penetration rate of less than 0.6%, mobile phones, is known. Now, nearly 700 million mobile phone users nationwide, becoming the world's largest mobile communications market. In 1949 China's total retail sales of social consumer goods was only 27.7 billion, in 2008 more than 10.8 trillion yuan, an increase of 390 times, the shortage is no longer the consumer to upgrade ... ... China and the world closer.
The past 30 years, through the introduction of foreign capital, advanced technology and management, marketing experience, the rapid development of China's automobile industry upgrading, among the world's second largest car manufacturer and the largest auto market. China Automobile Industry Association, the Secretary-General Dong Yang said there was no opening, no Chinese cars today, it would not have emerged such as the Chery brands.
I use two market -
In the United States South Carolina Camden City, there is a Haier road.
In April 1999, Haier Refrigerator Factory in the United States broke ground here, Haier Group has become China's first home in the United States invest and establish factories in large enterprises. Today, Haier has established more than 30 countries worldwide localization of design centers, manufacturing bases and trading companies, employees more than 50,000 people worldwide and in Pakistan established China's first foreign trade and economic cooperation zones.
Both "bringing in" and to "go out", make full use of the "two markets and two kinds of resources" - China has a more active part in international competition and cooperation.
August 18, 2009, Sinopec announced the acquisition of the Swiss Addax Petroleum completed the acquisition of China's overseas oil and gas assets, the biggest deal. The past 30 years, China's foreign economic cooperation, step by step, bigger, and widened the space of economic growth. In 1978, our external contracted projects, labor service cooperation, foreign design and consultation three combined annual turnover of 0.3 billion U.S. dollars, as of the end of 2008, China's total non-financial foreign direct investment 141.8 billion U.S. dollars, far-flung worldwide in more than 170 countries and areas, foreign-invested enterprises Yuwan home and developed to a greenfield investment, transnational mergers and acquisitions, equity swap, overseas listing, set up outside the industrial parks and R & D centers and other means. As of the end of June 2009, foreign contracted project, a total turnover of 295.2 billion U.S. dollars, sending all kinds of laborers 4.82 million people.
The most gratifying is that in the "going out" at the same time, a number of enterprises with multinational companies shape and cut a striking figure in the international market, Haier, Lenovo, Blue Star and other racing embark on cross-border journey.
Chinese companies abroad is no longer a small trade, and open the restaurant, but in manufacturing, resource development, shipping logistics, agriculture and cooperation, full bloom in many areas, overseas resources development, from fisheries, forests extended to the oil and gas, solid the field of mineral and other strategic resources, overseas mergers and acquisitions occur more and more exotic, the ability to contract growing large-scale projects, Chinese enterprises practicing with his head held high cross-dreams.
Open a new starting point standing
Have more right to speak
November 10, 2001, as soon as the hammer ring, China's accession to the World Trade Organization ... ...
WTO accession is the process of reform and opening up a historic event, marking the Chinese stand on a new starting point, at a higher level, a greater scope and extent, embrace the world.
Accession to the WTO, China's open door policy to the system by the nature of open; from unilateral self open to WTO members and I have a two-way between the open; from a passive open, to actively participate in the formulation of international economic and trade rules of the open .
According to the Ministry of Commerce introduction, entry into the WTO, China's foreign economic development 60 years into the fastest and the fastest time of the administrative system, perfect the socialist market economic system, but also the international community has more right to speak for the new century and new stage of full participation in economic globalization and reinforce the foundation, only foreign trade in 2002-2008 the average annual growth rate of the more than 26%, far higher than the world average; to the end of 2005, only the central level on the formulation, amendment, repeal more than 3,000 laws, administrative regulations and departmental rules and regulations, the market environment more transparent and standardized. At the same time, multilateral and bilateral economic and trade relations across the board development, mutual benefit and win-win good newspaper pouring in, APEC, 10 +1,10 +3, China-Africa cooperation, the SCO, since the free trade agreement with the United States and Europe and Japan, a high-level economy Dialogue ... ... Chinese exhibits an open-minded and responsible big country style. Accession to the WTO so far, China's contribution to economic development on the world rate of 13%, the United Nations, WTO, IMF, World Bank and other major international organizations, more and more emphasis on "China voices", "Chinese experience."
Read】 【extensionBeijing Olympic Games opening ceremony, the world saw an open, modern, confident China. Opening up, China to get its economic take-off and social progress and the inexhaustible motive force, and the depth of integration into the world economic mainstream. Looking back 60 years, we are filled with lung power and courage: unswervingly persist in opening up, promoting reform and promote development, learn all the advanced civilization of mankind, the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will surely make greater achievements on the road!