60th anniversary of the founding of New China to the economic and social development in Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is a pioneer in the establishment of provincial-level ethnic autonomous regions, with the new China through their socialist revolution, construction, reform and development of the glorious history. 60 years since the founding of New China, the Chinese Communist Party under the leadership of the party's national theory and policy of ethnic regional autonomy under the guidance of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Party Committee, the Government still hold high the Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the great banner of upholding the "Three Represents "important thinking, in-depth study and practice the scientific concept of development, unite and lead the region's peoples, hard work, pioneering innovation, economic and social development has made great achievements. 60 years, the region's rapid economic development, comprehensive strength has been significantly enhanced, continuous improvement of people's lives, from poverty and backwardness to prosperity, democracy, civilized and harmonious, in making big strides on the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
First, a brilliant achievement
Comprehensive strength has markedly increased. New China was founded 60 years, especially since the reform and opening up, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is accelerating the pace of economic development, especially into the 21st century, economic and social development has taken great leaps. From 1949 to 1978, Inner Mongolia's GDP by 708 million yuan rose to 5.804 billion yuan, 3 Fan for 28 years turned more than 30 years since 1978, turning between one another for more than 7 Fan. In 2008 GDP reached 776.18 billion yuan, ranking No. 16 provinces and autonomous regions in order to account for 1.8% of the population and create a national 2.58 percent of economic output and 3.85% economic increments, from entering the country after the column in the column . According to constant prices, the 2008 total economic output for 1949 of 233 times since the founding of New China, the Inner Mongolia region's average annual economic growth of 9.7% average annual growth since the reform and opening up 12.1%, "15" average annual growth rate since the 17.6%, Since 2002, the growth rate of 7 consecutive years, ranking No. 1, is the fastest-growing regional economy, urban and rural outlook has changed the most, the people of the masses benefit from the most historical period. Per capita GDP in 1949 to 118 yuan in 1978, 317 Yuan, 2,000 years more than 6,000 yuan, in 2003 more than 10,000 yuan in 2006, more than 20,000 yuan, in 2008 more than 30,000 yuan (up to 32,214 yuan), according to then converted into 4638 U.S. dollars exchange rate, Baotou, Ordos and Alashan 3 League City, per capita GDP more than 10,000 U.S. dollars. "China's overall economic competitiveness of Provincial Development Report (2007-2008) Blue Book" shows that in 2007 economic competitiveness of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region ranks No. 10, the western provinces and autonomous regions No. 1, in which industrial economic competitiveness, sustainable development competitiveness, environmental development competitiveness, and macroeconomic competitiveness 4 2 index highest in the country.
Increasingly complete industrial system. Founding of New China, Inner Mongolia, the proportion of agriculture and animal husbandry as high as 74.6%, is typical of the traditional agricultural provinces. After 60 years of development and construction of the economic structure is becoming more rational, the proportion of three industries in 1978, adjusted to 32.7:45.4:21.9,2008 was further adjusted to 11.7:55:33.3, modern agriculture and animal husbandry, modern industries and new services become increasingly complete industrial system . Foundation status of agriculture and animal husbandry has been consolidated. Livestock accounts for the current proportion of primary industry reached 45.9%, becoming the first industry-led component; rural areas of livestock accounted for 70% of the autonomous region has become the major growth point of animal husbandry; high-yield crops with high proportion of 61%, the main crop varieties coverage up to 97%, livestock, seeds and improved kinds of ratio reached 94.5%, an integrated mechanization level of agriculture and animal husbandry 62.5%, agricultural and livestock processing and conversion rate of 63%, agriculture and animal husbandry science and technology has contributed up to 45.41%, industrial management Nong Muhu covering 50% of the region, modern agriculture and animal husbandry as the main development direction of agriculture and animal husbandry. Currently has over 350 billion kilograms of grain, two million tons of meat, 9 million tons of fresh milk, the comprehensive production capacity of 6500 tons of cashmere has become the country's major agricultural production and supply base. Industrialization and achieve substantive progress. "15" period of industrialization from the early to enter the mid-autonomous region in 2008, the industrial added value is 2021 times that in 1949, industry accounted for the proportion of the region's economy increased 41.8 percent, the contribution of industry to GDP of up to 60%. The formation of energy, metallurgy, chemical industry, equipment manufacturing, agricultural and livestock products and high-tech six of its main features a complete range of industries represented by the modern industrial system, with Erdos, Mengniu, Yili, Yuan-xing and other 34 Chinese well-known trademarks, 30 a number of processes and equipment in the domestic and international leading position. Coal production, electricity generation ranking No. 2 and No. 4, outgoing power in the nation's first one, steel, building materials and chemical products in the country occupies an important position, become an important source of energy, raw materials and green agricultural and animal products processing base. The tertiary industry has developed rapidly.
Total amount of the tertiary industry in 2008 in Inner Mongolia ranks 17th in the growth rate ranks No. 2. In the catering trade, transportation and other traditional services to maintain a rapid growth, modern logistics, finance, insurance, information consultation, tourism, real estate, social services and other new services momentum of rapid development, services, production and service life, ability to significantly增强.
Infrastructure great achievements. Inner Mongolia, a vast territory, the founding of the initial infrastructure is very weak. After 60 years of investment and construction, especially in recent years, the region continued to expand financing channels, efforts to expand the investment scale and large-scale economic construction, and built a large number of infrastructure facilities and infrastructure projects, greatly improved the level of social productive forces, the basic conditions for economic and social development significantly improved. From 1950 to 2008, the whole investment in fixed assets totaled 2.3729 trillion yuan, of which 2001-2008 reached 2.03335 trillion yuan, accounting for 85.7%. "15" period, the average annual total fixed asset investment up 44.2% in 2006 up 26.7% in 2007 increased 29.3% in 2008 grew 27.2%, investment amounted to 560.5 billion yuan, ranking the country 11th, and autonomous regions are the side historical debts to repay construction field as he continued savings for sustained development. In recent years, the total investment in the industrial inputs accounted for half of the country, the main product is produced can be significantly improved. In 2008 compared to 2003, coal and 2.1-fold increase in production capacity, electric power installed capacity increased by 3.3-fold increase in 4-fold aluminum, steel products increased by 0.9 times, heavy-duty vehicles increased 8.3-fold, polyvinyl chloride increased 14.4-fold increase in a fold of liquid milk , bio-pharmaceuticals increased 4.6-fold. Linking eastern and western autonomous region of electricity, roads, railways three-channel basically completed, and in 2008 the region 220kv and 500kv transmission line, respectively, and 2887 kilometers to 9857 kilometers, the railway line mileage to reach 8547 kilometers and is 5.5 times that in 1949, road length of the routes to reach 147.3 thousand kilometers and is 61.5 times that in 1949, which reached 1879 kilometers highway, road capacity CNC Xinjiang Tatsumi has improved significantly. The central, autonomous regions and various social investment in geological survey of the main funding increased annually between 2003-2008 6-year cumulative invested 20.27 billion yuan (not including the 2008 gas exploration mining invested 30.815 billion yuan), and further find out the natural resources of the autonomous region . Housing supply situation in urban and rural residents significantly improved the region, 2001-2008 real estate investment totaled 207.242 billion yuan, an average annual increase of 41.9%.
Open joint breakthrough. Inner Mongolia, across the three North, adjacent to the eight provinces, external Russia and Mongolia, there are 2,400 km border line, 18 open ports. Since reform and opening, Inner Mongolia, make full use of the geographical location advantages, and actively promote foreign trade and economic and technical cooperation, the region import and export volume from 1978 to 016 million U.S. dollars increased in 2008 to 8.934 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 557.4 times. Of which exports from 0.1 billion dollars to 3.58 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 356.9 times. Now more than 100 countries and regions, with the establishment of the relationship between economic and trade exchanges, there are more than 700 kinds of products into the international market, Inner Mongolia, more than 100 million U.S. dollars export value of countries and regions, from "95" at end of period 2 to 6. Port development and utilization of resources, over the volume doubled in 2008, the volume of the region over port more than 40 million tons, of which more than 19 million tons Manzhouli, Erenhot port more than 14 million tons. Use of foreign investment has grown rapidly since 1985, foreign direct investment in the region reached 9.82 billion U.S. dollars, of which "15" has reached 9.06 billion U.S. dollars, is "95" period of 20.8 times. 2008 the year in which newly approved 125 foreign direct invested enterprises, foreign investment 2.65 billion U.S. dollars, than the "15" period, higher than the total amount of 130 million U.S. dollars, Motorola, Pepsi, Mercedes-Benz and other world top 500 enterprises to enter the Inner Mongolia. Scale personnel exchanges, "15" the number of inbound tourism since the region received 7.33 million visitors, earning 1.98 billion U.S. dollars, is "Ninth Five Year Plan" period, 3.5 times. Compared with the outside world, internal Investment results more prominent. Let opening up promote development adhere to the region, and promote development, adhere to large-scale, wide-ranging distribution of resources around key areas and key industries, multi-mode multi-channel, multi-platform investment, attracting factors of production across the country participate in the construction in Inner Mongolia, East Hope, a bright , TCL, Hualian, etc. settled domestic well-known enterprises in Inner Mongolia, has introduced since 2003, domestic (external) funds 732.5 billion yuan, Inner Mongolia is becoming the capital, technology, human resources, management and other elements of the net inflow area.
People's living standards improved steadily. People of all nationalities in general to achieve the basic well-off from food and clothing to the historic leap. Per capita disposable income of urban residents in 1978 to 301 yuan in 2006 surpassed 10,000 yuan, in 2007 more than 12,000 yuan, to 12,378 yuan. In 2008 more than 14,000 yuan, to 14,431 yuan. "15" period, per capita disposable income of urban residents an average annual growth of 12.2% in 2006, up 13.4% in 2007 increased by 19.5% in 2008 up 16.6%, ranking No. 9 the total, with the national average to narrow the gap到1350元。 Per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen in 1978 was 131 yuan in 2006 exceeded 3,000 yuan in 2007, close to 4,000 yuan, in 2008 more than 4600 yuan, reaching 4656 yuan. "15" period, the per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen average annual growth rate of 8% in 2006, up 11.8% in 2007 increased by 18.3% in 2008 increased by 17.8%, ranking No. 14 overall, with the national average to narrow the gap to the 105. Raise the level of household consumption, consumption structure has markedly upgraded. Per capita consumption expenditure of urban residents in 1978 to 268.8 yuan to 10,827 yuan in 2008, an average annual increase of 13.1%; of farmers and herdsmen per capita consumption expenditure from 138 yuan to 3618 yuan, an average annual increase of more than 11.5%. Spiritual and cultural life and a marked increase in demand for health care, health care, transportation, communications, entertainment, education, culture, housing, consumption increased rapidly, the structure of food and clothing to the diversification of gentrification changes the direction. 2008 urban and rural per capita living space of 29.3 and 21.5 square meters, respectively, compared with 1985, increased to 22 square meters and 8 square meters.
Environmental governance, with remarkable results. In recent years, the central leading comrades of the construction of the motherland in accordance with an important ecological barrier requirements of northern, autonomous regions based on the harmony between man and nature, and constantly increase the ecological construction and protection force, 1998 and-2008-year cumulative invested 37.1 billion yuan, has the implementation of returning farmland to forests, pasture and other nine ecological engineering, ecological protection and construction has made good results. The overall size of the region grasslands reached 7457.98 million mu, an area of 7.23 million mu of grazing grazing, rotational grazing area of 8286.23 mu, involving agriculture and livestock population of more than 1000 million, involving more than 6,000 million head of livestock only; accumulated forestry ecological construction an area of 1.29 million mu, nearly 6,000 mu of farmland, 8000 mu of basic grassland were being protected by forest networks, 2.4 million acres of sand erosion hazard area and an area of 1.5 million mu of the preliminary treatment, focusing on monitoring water in 55.2% of the rivers and 62.5 % of lake water quality improvement or stabilization, 92.3% of urban air quality and achieve good, or better, to reverse the trend of ecological deterioration and achieve a "total containment, partial improvement." In Inner Mongolia region, as resources and energy in recent years along with rapid economic and social development, resource and environmental pressures continue to increase, energy saving and emission reduction tasks extremely arduous. After great efforts, Inner Mongolia, as of 2008 completed the "Eleventh Five-year" energy saving targets and tasks for 53%, sulfur dioxide emission reduction task 44.55%, chemical oxygen demand reduction of 84.5% of the task. In Inner Mongolia in 2009 to determine energy-saving emission reduction targets, the unit GDP energy consumption fell by 5%, and two emission reduction schedule to achieve "Eleventh Five-Year," the target of 90% and 80%. From the current progress, is expected to be completed by 2010 target.
Made considerable progress in social undertakings. Vigorous implementation of the "science and education zone" strategy, science and technology to contribute to economic and social development has improved significantly. The end of 2008, there were altogether 138 state-owned independent R & D institutions, all kinds of professional and technical personnel 559,000 people. 2001-2007 region's science and technology funds invest 2.704 million yuan, a total of 768 award-winning scientific research. "15" accumulated since the processing of patent applications 12779, approved 7533, called the "Ninth Five-Year" period, 2.7 and 2.8-fold. Education to flourish. In 1978 the region has nine colleges and universities, currently 39. 317,000 people in college students is 25.2 times that in 1978, in which ethnic minority college students 98000 people. For every thousand people who have 131 college students, of which the Mongolian people have for every thousand students in school 200. The full implementation of compulsory education, "two exemptions and one subsidy", in the western provinces the first to achieve the "two basics" compliance. Vocational education and a solid national education promotion, distance education network coverage gradually expanded. Culture and art all-round prosperity. The region has 148 various types of arts organizations, performing groups 109, 102 cultural centers, museums, 37. Radio and television coverage of 94.05%, respectively, and 92.72%, compared with 1980, respectively 40.75 and 89.82 percentage points. Medical conditions improved significantly. The region a total of 7966 health institutions, beds, 74000, institutions, and the number of beds is 102 times that of 1949, health technicians 106,000 people in 1949 to 14.1 times. The region to carry out new-type rural cooperative medical care pilot Qixian to 95, covering rural and pastoral areas population of 14.344 million people. Remarkable progress in sports. -Depth development of mass sports activities, competitive sports levels were significantly increased in 2008 to achieve the Olympic gold medal breakthrough.
The level of social security has improved significantly. End of 2008, 3.8947 million were included in the basic endowment insurance, building insurance system than the beginning of the 2001 increase of 989,000 people; 3.737 million were included in the basic medical insurance increased 1.941 million people; 2.255 million workers into the unemployment insurance; 988.5 thousand people by the State and regional minimum living security of relief, urban guaranteeing security standards to 197 yuan, guaranteeing that the object on the per capita grant increase to 172 million; rural and pastoral areas guaranteeing that the object-year grants to 710 yuan per capita. 2008 year cities and towns to achieve new jobs total 238,000 people, laid-off workers re-employed 143.8 thousand persons, resettlement, "difficulties in finding jobs object" staff 51100 people, the cumulative confirmed registered 2261 "zero-employment families" all the assistance, all District registered urban unemployment rate of 4.1%; region's labor force employment in rural and pastoral areas to reach 2.261 million people; region's total of 18000 sets of low-rent housing construction (79 million square meters), a total of 96000 families with housing difficulties guaranteeing that low-rent housing guarantee; 867,000 farmers and herdsmen solve the safety of drinking water, 141 hematoxylin towns asphalt roads, 1659 Gacha villages Highway, 25000 farmers and herdsmen electricity, more than 700 villages of the phone issues; resolved 100,000 adequate food and clothing problem of population living in absolute poverty and 15 million low-income population in a stable increase of income.
Second, valuable experience
Since the founding of New China, especially in recent years, Inner Mongolia, the effectiveness of a huge economic and social development, the results gratifying, both the party's national policy of the important practice, but also an important practice in the scientific outlook on development, not only the experience of ethnic minority areas to accelerate development, but also to speed up the development of the western region experience, it is worth seriously sum up long remember.
From Inner Mongolia long-term development perspective of experience and enlightenment, the main there are four. First, uphold the Party's leadership, persisting in reform and opening up, adhere to the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics; second, persist in taking economic construction as the central idea of development is the last word through to the end, the first prerequisite is reflected in all aspects of the work of the region; Third, insist on preserving and strengthening national unity and consolidate the new socialist ethnic relations, and create national harmony and peaceful border a good environment for people of all nationalities together for unity and struggle to create a common prosperity and development of the favorable atmosphere for economic and social prosperity and development and lay a solid foundation; Fourth, insist on self-reliance and national support for the principle of combining both the national and autonomous regions, municipalities with the support and support for more emphasis on internal motivation to start the regional economy and vitality.
From the perspective of recent developments in Inner Mongolia, experience and enlightenment, mainly four.
First, we should seize the opportunity to accelerate development. Inner Mongolia by leaps and bounds in recent years, the success of the development of one of the main factors grasp the reality of a lot of opportunities. Such as national implementation of the western development strategy, strengthening ecological and infrastructure construction, increase investment in education technology and support to the western economy with local characteristics, dominant industry; China's accession to WTO, further opening up, make full use of Inner Mongolia, including Russia, Mongolia including the "two kinds of resources", "two markets"; countries to strengthen and improve macro-control, differential treatment, and keep, not only help Inner Mongolia, comparative advantage, bigger and stronger advantage of special industries, and it helps to adjust the structure shift in approach, to improve coordination and sustainable development; national implementation of the revitalization of northeast old industrial bases in the strategy for the eastern region of Inner Mongolia has brought about development opportunities; national minorities and ethnic areas to support development, and introduced a series of policies and measures, and steadily increased its frontier regional and national efforts to support regional development and so on. Inner Mongolia previously encountered a variety of opportunities, only this time through the efforts of cadres and the masses, the opportunity to become a development opportunity to become a realistic productive forces.
Second, adhere to deepen and improve the development ideas. In accordance with central guidelines, combined with local reality, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region party committee for the Seventh through the structural adjustment "a main line" to speed up the development of ideas and the way "two changes" to strengthen reform and opening up, scientific and technological progress, "the three major driving force" to promote the ecological construction , infrastructure construction, agricultural industrialization, new industrialization and urbanization, the "five priorities." Seventh CHAIRMAN three to six times in succession to speed up the development of big volume, long-term development and scientific development of the "fast, big, long, good" way of thinking. The Eighth Party Congress proposed to increase the "two level" (coordination and sustainable development levels), maintaining a "two more than the" (regional GDP and urban and rural incomes growing faster than the national average) to ensure that " 2 to achieve "(at the regional GDP and fiscal revenue to double, based on the realization of economic aggregate into the middle ranks of the national per capita of major economic indicators and strive to enter the forefront of destination) and other series of ideas. At present the whole region again in the development adhere to the "5 3" line of thinking, that is, new-type industrialization, agricultural industrialization and urbanization characteristics of the "three of interaction" reform and opening up and innovation of the "three forces to promote", the first , the second, third industry "three industries simultaneously," investment, consumption, export of the "three need to coordinate," the development of production, an affluent life, and ecological good "Sansei unification" embodies the guiding ideology of the inheritance of innovation and with the times Jin, successfully guiding the sound and rapid development of autonomous practice.
Third is to uphold the consolidation of the autonomous growth mechanism has been formed. In recent years, the most fundamental change in Inner Mongolia, and the most we should review the achievements, that is, formed a self-growth mechanism. Self-growth mechanism is mainly embodied in "three," or market-oriented allocation of resources to develop a distinct improvement in the hardware and software environment, investors increasingly diversified. Sources of investment in the autonomous region in recent years, the self-financing from a variety of social subjects more than 80%, the state funds and local bank loans, less than 20%, of which funds less than 5%. The future economic development of the autonomous region, the most fundamental thing is to continue to nurture, improve, and relying on self-growth mechanism, and further highlight the market in allocating resources to the fundamental role of continuous improvement of development conditions and optimize the development environment, efforts to promote social investment diversification to realize the scale of investment, effectively stimulate regional economic development potential and vitality.
Fourth, efforts to maintain hard-won development atmosphere and culture. In recent years, Inner Mongolia, from top to bottom has been formed to concentrate on construction and development, good atmosphere to form a unity and cooperation, vie with each other's work culture. Leading cadres persist in the region time and energy is mainly used in business development, and strive to grasp the general trend of economic and social development, and trends in the oncoming force, conscientiously study the state, the surrounding and the local situation, focus on economic and social development, highlights, important and difficult work to do to the mind clear, the situation is out, work really. Cadres and the masses of the region has always been gas composure whenever Qi, work together to build a beautiful homeland.
Third, the future prospects
The current development situation in Inner Mongolia is good, but economic and social development there are still some contradictions and problems, and some are still quite prominent. From the perspective of investment, consumption, and export demand, Inner Mongolia is still in investment-led economy; from three industries development, the Inner Mongolia is still regarded as industrial-fueled economy; from export-oriented economy, degree of view, Inner Mongolia, the smaller the effective use of foreign capital, Port's economic development is not quick enough, which is still inward-looking economy; from the people's production and living situation, as opposed to relatively rapid economic development and people's living standards improve slow; from the economic system perspective, Inner Mongolia, the state-owned, joint-stock enterprises than significant, individual a small proportion of private and foreign-funded enterprises; from the industrial level, the traditional industries are still more, new industries, modern industries are relatively small; from enterprise organization structure, cluster development is not enough, SME development lags behind; from the level of resource development and utilization view, comprehensive development and utilization level is not high, industry chain is not long, and so on. The current international financial crisis, the development of Inner Mongolia is also a certain impact. All the contradictions and difficulties, all of us, under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee and State Council resolved to deal with.
The future development of the autonomous region should continue under the guidance of scientific concept of development, combined with practical efforts to promote the development of pattern. First, focus on improving the level of development of modern agriculture and animal husbandry, and strive to realize the transformation from agriculture and livestock farming region to the strong zone change; Second, efforts to promote the process of new industrialization, and strive to achieve the advantages from the resource advantages to industry change; Third, focus on the development of modern services, efforts to achieve economic growth was mainly driven by secondary industry to the first, second and tertiary industries synergy drive change; Fourth, efforts to adjust and optimize the economic structure, and efforts to achieve economic development from pace of expansion to quality and economic returns; 5 is making efforts to promote eco - civilization, and strive to achieve ecological protection and construction, significantly improved from the initial success to change; 6 is making efforts to promote reform and opening up and scientific and technological progress, and strive to achieve by the capital inflow area to factor into the zone change; 7 pains to safeguard and improve people's livelihood, and strive to problem-solving to achieve the people's livelihood by the emergency response mechanism to establish a long-term change; 8 is a focus on the innovation as a priority to respond to crises and long-term development of a basic strategy, efforts to achieve economic growth in factor inputs from type to innovation-driven change.
Looking Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's future development as there is few of the more important stage and node. First, in 2010, namely, "Eleventh Five-Year" end times, and autonomous regions to achieve the goal of the eighth party congress is to strive to improve the "two level" to maintain "two more than" to ensure that the "two realization "total economic output into the country's middle ranks, mainly striving to enter the nation in per capita terms, in the first 10 years of this century's end, to make a strong comprehensive strength, and reasonable economic structure, regional and distinctive features, social stability and harmony, and vitality vitality of northern Inner Mongolia, the rise of the motherland. Inner Mongolia in the above-mentioned objectives focus on putting the focus on people-oriented, to improve urban and rural people's income level. In recent years, narrowing the gap between the trend, in 2010 the autonomous region is expected to achieve the income levels of urban and rural residents reached the national average level as well. Second, in 2015, is "Shier Wu" period. Has started to actively plan, and strive to maintain the first 10 years of this century, a better and faster development on the basis of five years or five years and then maintain the fast development of long-term development for the autonomous region to lay a more solid foundation. Third, 2017 is the 70th anniversary of the establishment of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, in the 60th anniversary of the development, based on the strive towards greater achievements. Fourth, in 2020, according to the medium-term development goals, Inner Mongolia, a fully completed with the national well-off society. Fifth, the middle of this century, we must strive to achieve by mid-century expectations of Comrade Deng Xiaoping's "into the forefront," Comrade Jiang Zemin's request, "became an important pivot point," General Secretary Hu Jintao required "became two important barrier" for the country's prosperity development and stability, in order to rejuvenate the Chinese nation, and make due contributions.