Cafe de Flore and the early Zhou Enlai's revolutionary activities in France
In 2008, I went to France, apart from public activities in the local overseas Chinese with the help of surprised to find that a license was the Paris municipal government legislation in France to commemorate Zhou Enlai, the former site of revolutionary activities - Cafe de Flore.
Cafe de Flore (LeCafedeFlore) in Paris 6th district St Germain Street, No. 172, built in 1887, since we had the door with an ancient Roman statue of goddess named Flore. From the opening at the beginning, Cafe de Flore with politicians, scholars formed a deep bond. 19th century, the Loyalists of the "advocates of monarchy" has periodically gathered here; the early 20th century, to the new royalist Maurras represented in this set up a "French Action"; focused on the discovery, "subconscious mind" the " Surrealism, "was born in 1917 in this (super-realism movement founder Li Naier A glass, Soupault, and Breton to meet regularly on this. is Cafe de Flore in a round table on A glass Li Naier as "super-realism" name); the 20th century, the rage 40 years of "Existentialism" is also produced in this brewing (the main representative of Sartre's existentialism in this creation of "Being and Nothingness," Camus and Simone de Eva also often written here); while the modernist painter Picasso, it is like night into the "Flower of God" ... ...
Chou En-lai on December 13, 1920, No. RMS ride arrived in Marseilles, Bordeaux, France, Hong Kong, then to Paris; January 5, 1921, he crossed the English Channel by boat to London, living in the vicinity of Russell Square, Bernard 35; because British cost of living high, then back to Zhou Enlai in early February in France, in Paris suburb of Allianz French school tuition French; early March 1922, Zhou Enlai, moved from Paris to Berlin, the Royal Village, tree-lined suburban road Warme 54, and often and from France, Italy, than among other countries; the summer of 1923, Zhou Enlai returned to France, living in Baligede Geoffroy Street, on the 17th of the hotel; in July 1924, Zhou returned to work in accordance with the instructions of the CPC Central Committee. Chou En-lai in Europe lasted for three and a half, of which 2 / 3 or more time is spent in France.
Zhou Enlai during the period in France, should be frequented the Cafe de Flore. Paris city government for the Cafe de Flore on the legislation of the plaque reads: "... ... politicians, such as Tuoluo Ci and Zhou Enlai often a guest here ... ..." Now, people have gone to Wucongkaozheng out of Chou En-lai total number of flora coffee shop, the Cafe de Flore done, but you can sure, the Cafe de Flore witness to Chou En-lai by a patriotic youth into a communist, and an active part in revolutionary activities of the course.
Chou En-lai to France after a feeling of seeking truth and rejuvenation of China's ambition, eagerly read a lot of Western books, both read a lot of Marxist works, such as the "Communist Manifesto", "French Civil War," "Socialism from utopian to scientific development "and so on, they read books such as the anarchist Kropotkin's" My Autobiography "and so on, also advocated the bourgeoisie with the proletariat" cooperation "of the" Fabian socialism, "had generated interest.
Zhou Enlai during the period in Europe, it is through Marxism, Kropotkin's "anarchic communism", "Fabian socialism," and other kinds of "isms" of the comparative study, recognized that only scientific socialism can save China, so that he will eventually Marxism as their lifelong beliefs. In the Zhou Enlai all kinds of "isms" to compare the process of Cafe de Flore is the best "historical witness" one.
In March 1921, Zhang and Zhou Enlai, Liu Qingyang Introduction to join a communist group in Paris. Paris Group of the eight founding the Chinese Communist Party to launch one of a panel, so Zhou Enlai was also co-founder of Communist China. Communist group in France after the establishment of the Communist Youth League, started the nature of Zhou Enlai and other communist organizations - Chinese Youth Communist Party in Europe. Around the end of 1921, Zhou Enlai and Zhao Yan, Li Wei-han (Xinmin when members of the Institute) in Paris, a hotel to meet to discuss the formation of the Communist Party of Chinese Youth in Europe matters. Early March 1922, Zhou Enlai and Zhang Shen-fu, etc., Paris, moved to Berlin, and as far away as Germany, the composition of CPC members Nicknamed Jane Travel Germany CPC organizations, and often run around in France, Germany and Belgium among other countries, actively carry out communism in Europe Marxist organizations, the preparatory work. June 1922, in Paris, in a western suburb Bulunsenlin open space on the chair by Zhao Shiyan, Zhou Enlai (on behalf of Berlin), Li Wei-han (on behalf of the World Society of Engineering), Liu Bo-jian (on behalf of Belgium) and other 23 participants (some say 18 people), by the constitution drafted by Zhou Enlai to determine the establishment of the Communist Party of Chinese Youth in Europe, the party's headquarters based in Paris, Italy, Godefroid Street Plaza, No. 17 of the hotel. The meeting elected the Central Executive Committee, Zhao Yan (a pseudonym Lok-sang) secretary, Zhou Enlai (Wu Hao) is responsible for publicity, Li Wei-han (Romay) is responsible for the organization. August 1, organ of the "juvenile" founded, Zhou Enlai, one of the main authors, has published in the journal "communism and China", "religious and communism", "warned workers," "October Revolution , "" On the trade union movement "," the Russian revolution failed, Mody "and other articles. In October, Chinese Youth Communist Party in Europe held a meeting in Paris, decided to join the Chinese Socialist Youth League (in early May, the Chinese Socialist Youth League for the first time National Congress held in Guangzhou). Early in January 1923, Li Wei-han back to the CPC Central Committee made a presentation. In January, the Chinese Youth Communist Party in Europe before the Soviet Union to participate in the Fourth Congress of the Communist International representative of China, Chen Duxiu (time chairman of the Executive Committee of the CPC Central Committee) in reply, proposed that "Chinese Youth Communist Party in Europe," was renamed "China Communist Youth League in Europe of the Department, "the" Central Executive Committee "to" Executive Committee. " February 17, travel Europe and China Youth Communist Party Congress held in Paris in the interim, to the meeting on behalf of 42 people (represented in France, Germany and Belgium, studying in 72 "young communist" party) formally accepted the proposal, the adoption of Chou En-lai drafting of a "Chinese Communist Youth League in Europe the Constitution", elected a new Executive Committee, Zhou Enlai secretary. The summer of 1923, Zhou Enlai returned to France from Germany, living in Baligede Geoffroy Street, 17, engaged in the party and the group's work and often go to students and Chinese workers are concentrated in the Latin district and the suburbs a small coffee shop or write a speech article (to "a small coffee shop to write a speech or article," is well documented, concluded, "a small coffee shop," It is possible that Cafe de Flore. According to the author visits, the Latin Quarter of Paris is located in five areas, among the six districts, while the Cafe de Flore Saint-Germain in the 6th District, on the streets, sites are basically consistent. Another Cafe de Flore seat area is open dissemination of ideas and culture of the "ideal Auditorium", such as A glassy Li Naier once every Tuesday preach here, "super-realism"). Here, Chinese Communist Youth League in Europe is mainly with the "anarchy" and "nationalism" to send to fight.
Young people in Europe in the anarchist faction in the autumn of 1921 set up a "leisure society." Two sons, Chen Yan-Nian Chen Du-xiu Chen and Joe years have been the "spare Society" of the key members of Chen Yan-Nian (a pseudonym wood) been a "spare" magazine editor. For the anarchists, Zhou Enlai that they, after all, a revolution of the youth, to use the Chinese revolution and fight for their practical education. 1922, "2 Chan" is striving to become members of the Chinese Youth Communist Party in Europe, and their own experiences, education and other work I strive for community members. To the end of 1923, the Chinese Communists in Europe and the anarchist organizations in the fight against faction has achieved a decisive victory.
Young people in Europe of nationalism were formed in 1923 by ZENG, Li Huang, led by China Youth Party, they believe that China's biggest problem is that "the majority of the national non-conscious country heart", deny and oppose the Communist Party of China put forward the anti - Di, anti-feudal revolutionary program. Right nationalist faction, Zhou Enlai after another in the "Red Light" (February 1, 1942 "Youth" was renamed "Red Light", Zhou Enlai appointed editor, Li Fuchun, Deng Xiaoping, is responsible for editing and the engraved version) published the "China under the rule of the warlords "" powers condominium China steps "such as more than 30 articles for-tat struggle. Nationalist faction led by then degenerated to the point where the French police arresting party members, ZENG, Li Huang returned to China has also openly in collusion with the warlords, Sun Chuan-fang.
The first "KMT-CPC cooperation," period, with the development of the domestic situation, August 29, 1922, the CPC Central Committee held a meeting at the West Lake in Hangzhou, according to the instructions of the Comintern has made establishment of a democratic united front with the KMT, party members in his own name to join the KMT's decision. At the same time, the KMT also aware that the Chinese in Europe are gathering a large number of outstanding intellectuals, is a political force can not be underestimated. In August 1922, Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang headquarters to appoint Wang Jing Qi as a plenipotentiary to France in preparation for the formation of the European branch of the Kuomintang. According to the instructions of the CPC Central Committee, Zhou Enlai and Wang Jing-Qi made contact, trying to help him carry out the preparatory organizational work. March 10, 1923, under the auspices of Premier Zhou Enlai, Chinese Communist Youth League in Europe meeting in Paris in order to vote adopted to form a coalition with the KMT Youth League in Europe front, as well as his own name to join the Kuomintang resolution. November 25, 1923, the inaugural meeting of the Kuomintang branch in Europe held in Lyon, Communist Youth League in Europe more than 80 people all in his own name to join the Kuomintang, Chou En-lai was selected as the Executive Director of the Department of General Services (ie, the Secretary-General, Li Fuchun was elected Publicity Officer ), and in the implementation of the Minister of Wang Jing-Qi home agent of its duties during the period, presided over the work. After the meeting, Zhou Enlai was appointed as member of the Kuomintang preparations for the Paris Communications Department, Li Fuchun, Nie Rongzhen also actively involved in preparatory work. January 17, 1924, the KMT Communications was established in Paris, Nie Rongzhen any Director. Zhou Enlai's active promotion, the Kuomintang has in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and other countries to establish a branch, Chu served as director of the KMT German branch of the organization.
In Europe during the period, Zhou Enlai, while working and writing articles for the media while releasing a lot of time and effort to study the social situation in Europe. Chou En-lai with the domestic media have maintained close contact. In January 1921, in London, Zhou Enlai, intensive factories, mines and docks, extensive collection of various types of information, in order to Tianjin "benefit the World newspaper," wrote a lengthy communication, detailing a British post-war unemployment, comments British institutions and parliamentary democracy. February 28, 1921, more than 400 work-study students to protest in front of Chinese Embassy in France, "Stopping the maintenance fee", was beaten and dispersed by the French police. In March, Zhou Enlai wrote a lengthy communication "students in France big waves," reported the struggle beginning to end, in the "Yi World newspaper," published. In June 1921, Zhou Enlai wrote a newsletter, "Chinese in France refused to loan the campaign" against the northern warlords to borrow and to purchase arms to fight the French civil war, and returned to the domestic published, caused great repercussions.
In Europe during the period, Zhou Enlai, were with France and Germany were to maintain close contact with the Third International and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) and also has frequent contact with representatives in France. Zhou Enlai personally contact all parties to obtain help, which gave the Communists in Europe the number of organizations have been able to send groups of students to study in Moscow. During the period in France, Zhou Enlai also met Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen when the name of patriotism), and has since established a half-century of friendship. In Europe during the period, Zhou Enlai met a large number of like-minded comrades. When they return home, some for the revolution sacrificed their lives, such as Cai Hesen, Xiang Jingyu, Zhao Yan, Chen Nian, Chen Qiao year, Wang Ruofei, Bo-Jian, Liu Bo-jian, Kumao, Sun Bingwen, Guolong true, and some continued to serve as the party and the state in key leadership positions, such as Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, Li Fuchun, Cai Chang, Li Wei-han, Li Lisan, Chen Yi, Nie Rongzhen and others.
Travel Remi Oyo in France during the period it is the range of learning, study and struggle, Zhou Enlai led the Marxist world outlook maturity and made a series of original insights: ⑴ explicitly put forward the use of socialism to rescue China, and pointed out that Faith is different from superstition, belief in communism, we must put into practice. ⑵ clear that the object of the Chinese revolution warlords and foreign powers, old and new warlords are not reliable, the revolution can only rely on "all the Chinese workers, peasants, businessmen and students," a joint, all of China's working class, especially the working class is revolutionary main the most reliable. ⑶ for the Chinese bourgeoisie, Zhou Enlai and creativity that is not "monolithic" but should be treated differently, where sympathy for the revolution between the molecule and is likely to join the revolution. ⑷ advocate the establishment of "very strong and well-organized," the revolutionary army. During the period in Europe, Chou En-lai publicly called as "systematic, planned, organized, trained revolutionary riot" to overthrow the Government of the Northern warlords, "organize a revolutionary government," the achievements of the Chinese nation, "an independent cause." ⑸ creatively put forward the idea of China's revolution two-step, that is the first step is, "Three People's Principles revolution, the proletariat and middle classes together to overthrow the ruling feudal class 'class revolution'", the second step is the "break the private system "," proletarian dictatorship "of the socialist revolution. Zhou Enlai, even in the "Red Light" published an article predicted the United States and Japan, "Pacific imperialist war" eventually broke out.
In the "KMT-CPC cooperation" against the backdrop of revolutionary base area in Guangdong to flourish in urgent need of a large number of cadres. July 31, 1924, Zhou Enlai, in accordance with the instructions of the CPC Central Committee return to work, ending a three and a half career in Europe. Travel Europe and China Communist Youth League Central Committee Executive Board to the mission's report, so that evaluation of him: "sincere moderate plenty of activity, writing quick, profound study of the doctrine, it could be completely proletarianization. English is better, French, German, can read books and newspapers. Faqi established in this area (since), he is one of those, a former executive member of three in this area, enthusiasm-tolerant with distinction. "
Chou En-lai in Europe lasted for three and a half, including at least 2 / 3 of the time is spent in France. According to the information only infer that during the period in France, Zhou Enlai is likely to often go to Cafe de Flore seat open-air speeches or write articles district. We can say that Cafe de Flore witnessed by a great man of Zhou Enlai, "For all the doctrine began to inquire more" nationalist patriotic youths to grow into a "profound study of the doctrine, and it could be completely proletarian" of the firm's Marxist, and an active part in revolutionary activities of the course.
History remembers Zhou Enlai; history should also be remembered Cafe de Flore.
After returning home, the author're thrilled, respect the feelings of the Cafe de Flore photo washed out, gave the CPC Central Party History Research Office and the family of Prime Minister Chou En-lai. Believe that Cafe de Flore because of Chou En-lai's name, will be for more attention to the Chinese people, the longing. (This article originally published in the "Study of Party History," 2009 No. 8, by the Department of China Everbright Group chairman Tang Shuangning)