A drill is a tool that is used to drill or tap holes in different materials using drill bits. Modern drills are the culmination of centuries of technology. Crankshafts appeared in carpenters’ workshops and carpenters around the 15th century. Manual gear drills date back to the 19th century, and it was towards the end of the 19th century that the first electric drills appeared.
1 Manual drill
2 Cordless drill
3 Hammer drill
5 Column drill
6 Radial drill
7 Magnetic drill
8 Pneumatic drill
9 Air hammer
10 Multi-spindle drill
Manual drill or chignole.
This is a drill equipped with a conventional mandrel for tightening the bits, but the driving force of which is provided by a crank, and an angle transmission gear. Manual drills often have two speeds, in reality two different ratios. They should not be confused with other manual drilling tools such as crankshaft or auger. The manual drill is commonly referred to as a crank chignole.
Screwdriver / screwdriver.
The cordless drill is a tool equipped with an electric motor running on a battery, it is used to drill holes in different materials. Its power is less than a corded drill, but its usefulness (in case of lack of current) and its maneuverability (no wire to drag behind you) make it an essential tool. The removable batteries are recharged on a specific base, comprising an electrical transformer, and a thermal safety cutout.
A percussion drill is equipped with a so-called “classic” chuck whether keyed or self-tightening, its primary function as a drill is accompanied by a percussion function in order to drill hard materials such as brick or concrete. . However, for even harder materials or more intense use, it is better to use a perforator.
The perforator is a tool that combines the qualities of a drill and those of a hammer drill. Punches first appeared on the market in the 1980s.
The perforator is a versatile tool which has a function selector: simple drilling, drilling with percussion, percussion only (allows chiselling work). This type of device uses drill holders and drill bits to the SDS (Special Direct System) Plus standard. They are characterized by the impact energy expressed in joules and the speed of rotation expressed in revolutions per minute.
A drill press is a workshop machine tool attached to a frame, workbench or floor. It allows precise and large vertical drilling (diameters up to 30 millimeters in ordinary steel).
The electric motor, of a few hundred watts, turns a spindle via a gearbox (often with belts). An ordinary chuck or taper shank drills (taper jaws) can be attached to the end of this spindle which can slide vertically when the operator operates a handwheel, lever or by the motor. The workpiece to be drilled is held firmly in a vice which is itself fixed on the table. The piece can be clamped directly on the small table or on the plinth thanks to the slides or buttonholes.
The small table slides and swivels along the column supporting the motor. By pivoting the small table, space is freed up to fix large pieces on the base. It can also turn on itself, which makes it possible to drill a series of holes drawn on a circumference.
A graduated slat is attached to the spindle which makes it possible to measure the depth of the hole, especially if it is blind. The batten is also used to measure the depth of a milling, a recess, a counterbore. Stops can be fixed on the slat which allows identical operations to be carried out. In the case where the descent is done by means of a motor, the descent speed is lower than those of ascent.
The speed of the spindle depends on the diameter, the nature of the cutting tools and the nature of the lubrication and the nature of the material to be worked. Some drills have a closed lubrication circuit driven by a pump.
A drill press has several advantages as presented in this comparison site1. It is a fairly stable tool which has great drilling precision. Likewise, it is simple to use and does not require any special skills. On the safety side, all measures are taken so that the user is not exposed to any danger with generally a mushroom head switch and a protective screen placed in front of the spindle.
Radial drilling machine with swivel table.
It is a machine tool similar to a drill press but whose spindle is mounted on a carriage sliding along an arm that can pivot with the column as the axis.
It can be fitted with a head or with a tilting table allowing drilling along non-vertical axes.
On this type of machine can also be made countersinks and bores. For the many operations requiring great precision of the holes located in more varied positions, the boring machine or the boring-milling machine is preferred.
It is a machine tool made up of a traditional drill body mounted via a vertical axis on a magnetic base (an electromagnet) which allows the latter to be fixed on the parts to be drilled. It is mainly used in metal frameworks. This drill can work with traditional drills equipped with an adapter and a chuck. But it is originally designed to work with cutters (trephine type). This drill must always be used with a safety chain to prevent falls in the event of a power failure.
Drill using compressed air as energy. They are often used in auto repair garages. They need to be connected to a compressed air tank via a hose.
In the drill, the electric motor compresses air through a piston. When you place a Widia insert drill you are in possession of a percussion drill. If a chisel is inserted into it, masonry work can be done.
This is a drill (usually stationary, like a drill press) which has several bit holders to accommodate several bits at the same time. This type of device allows the simultaneous drilling of several holes of identical or different diameters at pre-positioned locations. They are used in industry (wood, metal, furniture …).
AEG (owned by Techtronic Industries-TTI Hong Kong)
Black & Decker (United States of America)